The modern name for the blue to green mineral – one of the very first to be mined – comes from an Old French word for Turkish.

The name dates from the 16th Century when the mineral was brought to France from Turkey, sourced from what is now North East Iran.

Turquoise was thought to have protective and preventative qualities, and to change colour depending on its wearer’s state of health and  fortune.

(Image: Turquoise beads. Photo, Cobalt123)


Copper is named for one of the important places it was mined – Cyprus.

We get the word copper from the Latin cuprum or cyprium: metal of Cyprus (from Greek, Kyprios).

Copper salts give minerals a blue or green colour and were often used as pigments… Paris Green and Egyptian Blue are examples.

(Image: Detail of copper cladding, the de Young museum, San Francisco. Photo, C. Reddaway)

garance, indigo + gaude

Garance, indigo and gaude are words which refer to the colours produced by plant dyes used in traditional fabric dying. Garance produces a red dye, indigo a blue dye and gaude a yellow dye. So yes, it’s really just red, blue and yellow in fancy outfits, in the world of pre-19th century European fabric design.

Garance refers to a red dye made from varieties of the Madder plant. Common Madder (Rubia tinctorum) was used extensively in French textile production. A common problem for French textile workers was getting the red colour developed in France to match the intense red made in India – it took 100 years and some spy work to discover the process Indian dyers used to make their special bright red.

Indigo is from the Latin indicum, in turn from the Greek indikon: ‘blue dye from India’. In the Mediterranean it was originally referred to as annil, ‘the indigo shrub’.

Gaude is an Old French word for Weld (Reseda luteola), a plant used to make a strong, yellow dye. Weld has been used for thousands of years until being superseded in the early 20th century by synthetic dyes. The Reseda plant includes the variety Mignonette (Reseda odorata), a flowering species that was a favourite amongst Victorian Londoners, who planted it in their window boxes to form a perfumed barrier between their noses and the dubious smells of 19th Century London streets.

(Image: Fabric Indiennes L’arbre de VieYellow)